Neither the CACO nor the Convention creates a criminal offence. However, depending on the actual circumstances, there may be criminal implications in respect of the removal of a child in Hong Kong. Section 26 of the Protection of Children and Juveniles Ordinance (Cap. 213) provides that it is an offence for a person to take a child away unlawfully against the will of the child's parent or guardian. Under section 43 of the Offences Against the Person Ordinance (Cap. 212), there is an offence of "stealing child under 14 years". Section 126 of the Crimes Ordinance (Cap. 200) provides for an offence of abduction of an unmarried girl under 16 against the will of her parent or guardian, and some other sections of this Ordinance provide for other abduction situations relating to sexual acts. There are also the common law offences of kidnapping and false imprisonment, and an offence of kidnapping for a ransom in section 42 of the Offences Against the Person Ordinance (Cap. 212).

N.B. This section is for general information and reference only. It is not meant to be exhaustive of likely offences related to child abduction.